Manisa Turkish Com.

The Turkish Language Explained for Speakers of English

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By Alex (Adana, Turkey) - Amazon Verified Purchase (Kindle)

After looking everywhere online and in bookstores...This book is far the best Turkish Language book for English Learners on the market.

  • - Married to a Turkish girl...
  • - Been living in Turkey for 3 years...
  • - Used this book to learn how to talk to my wife/family...

Thanks! Alex..

Our Amazon Kindle EBook

I have bought many books on Turkish and this is certainly one of the best. If read in conjunction with John Guise's excellent free website then together they make a powerful learning tool. Some Grammars use an awful lot of complicated grammar terms which I should have learnt at school, but either didn't, or have now forgotten. John Guise uses easy language. Where there are difficulties, he explains them and often repeats explanations. Some Grammars assume that just because they have explained something once, then you are going to know it. With me it takes a bit of repetition and I am sure I am not in the minority. He often goes over rules etc. and drops in helpful reminders. The style of the book, clearly shows the writer has had the same struggles in learning Turkish that we all have, so you feel the tips and advice are really relevant. - Review from Amazon (USA)

5.0 out of 5 stars - Absolutely brilliant

This book brings this fascinating language closer to my heart!
This review is from: The Turkish Language Explained for English Speakers (Kindle Edition).
I liked how the book is structured, and the way it leads you into the understanding of the language. This way you can take what you need from the book, so that finally the language makes sense. Congratulations to this wonderful book!
Ilse - Amazon (UK) Verified Purchase (What is this?) - 11 Sep 2013

Turkish Language and Grammar from a Turkish point of view.

Manisa Turkish Com. - This website is designed for "pretty printing" any page. Use your browser's print preivew button to print any page you wish for your own notes.

A comment on Turkish grammar by Max Müller in the 1850's

"It is a real pleasure to read a Turkish grammar ; the ingenious manner in which the numerous grammatical forms are brought out ; the regularity which pervades the system of declension and conjugation ; the transparency and intelligibility of the whole structure, must strike all who have a sense of that wonderful power of the human mind which has displayed itself in language."

Turkish is not a Classical Structured Language

The Turkish grammar is not looked on by the Turks themselves as a Classical Structured Language. They have their own grammar rules which are not based on the Classical System (Latin, Greek etc.).

Most Turkish grammars for foreigners are however written by linguists and grammarians (usually in consort with a Turkish national) and they tend to follow what they themselves have learned at school or university in their learning lives.
Consequently we find all the best grammars are peppered with such classic terms as, accusative, dative, locative and ablative cases, together with such tenses and moods as those called the aorist, subjunctive etc.

I must own up to this fault myself, as having had a grammar school education in the Latin oriented 1940's, I too began to try learning Turkish from a Classical Grammar standpoint.

Turkish has its own Grammar Rules

It has taken me many years to realize that is incorrect, we would be far better to use the Turkish grammar nomenclature, such as Wide Tense for the Aorist tense and Noun Condition Movement Away for the Ablative case, and many other similar classical grammar terms should be discarded in my mind.

The reason that these thoughts were awakened in me was that I began receiving emails from persons, linguists, teachers, professors pointing out my sundry mistakes in my usage of grammar terms, in reality their received knowledge of Classic Language Grammar terms was the yardstick that they were applying to the Turkish language, and in this particular case to Manisa Turkish.

Now I do not pretend to know too much about grammar; as I have stated previously I only have a grammar schoolboy's level from 50 years ago. Therefore I started to think a little about our attitude and practice in teaching Turkish grammar.

The first thing that hit me was the concept of Vowel Harmony - I do not think that we find this in Classical Languages; it seems to be a Turkic language peculiarity. We also find some consonant changes to preserve phonetic euphony; we do have a little of consonant change in English but not for the same reason.

However, that which that affected my thinking most of all was the fact, that even Prof. G.E. Lewis could not find a suitable grammatical vehicle in either classical or English terminology for what I will call the "possessive relationship". He himself resorted to calling this by a Persian name "izafet", so even the most learned experts seemed to be stumped for a suitable grammatical description.

Turkish Grammar - the Turkish way

So I scoured the web and found some Turkish Grammar rules as stated in the Turkish way. These have been translated by Manisa Turkish, and for those learners who are interested it may open new roads to learning the language. We have to thank these anonymous Turkish authors - and we have published their writings without permission, for they are from many already published and open sources, solely for the cause of further education and at no profit, (in reality at a personal loss!)

Manisa Turkish cannot really comment on the content of these pages on Turkish grammar from the Turkish point of view, but we are always ready to accept any contributions, corrections or suggestion for the betterment of this section on The Turkish Language.

If you think we have infringed any copyright - then please forgive us, there is no intention of plagiarism, just a publishing of received knowledge for those so interested.
Happy learning

JG - Manisa Turkish, Kawerau, New Zealand - ©  January 2009

About the Turkish Language

The Origins of Turkish

The Turkish Language originated in The Altay Mountain Range in Northern Siberia centuries ago. For this reason it is called an Altaic Language. As the nomads expanded further into Asia Minor, they brought their language with them to Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan and other countries.
Many of these languages are mutually intelligible although local usage and vocabulary, spelling and alphabet may differ - however they all exhibit the same grammatical structure of agglutination and vowel harmony. Turkish being a language emanating from Central Asia, is spoken from the borders of Greece to the hinterland of Western China, there may also be some affinity with the Hungarian, Finnish, Korean and some of the indigenous American Indian languages. The Ottoman Empire brought the language to the gates of Vienna and to Arabia, Egypt and Northern Africa as their empire flourished. It is because of this expansion that the language and vocabulary is peppered with words from Arabic, Persian and European languages. These imported words mostly (but not always) follow the basic grammar and vowel harmony of native Turkish.

The Structure of Turkish

Turkish is characterized by vowel harmony, consonant mutation and agglutination. Post positions are used instead of prepositions. Thus suffixes added to the stem of the verb may indicate positive or negative forms of the passive, reflexive, causative, potential, subjunctive moods plus further additions for tense and person. Nouns are also suffixed with possessor and case (declension). Both the subject definite article and grammatical gender are lacking. Adjectives precede their noun and do not have to agree in number or case. The sentence form is SOV - Subject, Object, Verb.

The Features of Turkish

  1. The Consonants - Twenty-one letters represent the consonants.
  2. The Adjectives - Adjectives and adjectival phrases precede their noun and do not agree in number.
  3. Vowel Harmony - Turkish has eight vowels, four pairs (A-E, I-İ, O-Ö, U-Ü) with corresponding front/back, and rounded/unrounded sounds, which form the basis for vowel harmony. According to vowel harmony rules, vowels of suffixes must have the same properties as the vowel in the last syllable: either front/back or rounded/unrounded.
  4. Agglutination takes the form of suffixes attached to the end of a word, whether noun or verb. Suffixes add to the word's meaning and/or mark its grammatical function. [Affixed suffixes or suffix groups - words are composed of a sequence of word elements, each of representing only one grammatical category.]
  5. The Absence of Gender - Turkish does not have a definite article, nor does it have gender pronouns (one word signifies - he, she, or it).
  6. Verbs always come at the end of the sentence - Sentence construction follows the subject-object-verb pattern.

Turkish Grammar Described

The language differs from the Indo European Group - English, Spanish, etc. in both grammatical structure and vocabulary. It is also a phonetic language - each letter always retains it own sound, not as in English where the sound of the letters can change, as the letter a does in fat, fate, fare etc. - Also, changes are made to consonants in spelling - Consonant Mutation - in certain circumstances as discussed below. Another all pervading facet of Turkish is the Rule of Vowel Harmony where subsequent vowels in a word or suffix will follow the vowel grouping of the previous vowel.

Turkish Noun Conditions

These six conditions are suffixed to the root word according to Vowel Harmony the vowels of the suffix match the final vowel of the root word.

Turkish Grammar is regular

Turkish Pronunciation is Phonetic - In Turkish each letter of the alphabet retains its basic pronunciation.
Turkish grammar is perfectly regular but differs in that it consists of post-positions which are suffixed directly to nouns or other parts of speech to modify their meaning. This use of suffixes is called agglutination - literally meaning - a gluing on - this is in contrast to English which uses individual prepositions for the same reasons. Agglutination is discussed below. Another peculiarity of Turkish is the - Rule of Vowel Harmony - where vowels can change in pronunciation and spelling to mirror the previous vowel in a word - this rule is discussed below.

Agglutination - a sticking on to


A grammatical process in which words are composed of a sequence of morphemes (meaningful word elements), each of which represents not more than a single grammatical category. This term is traditionally employed in the typological classification of languages. Turkish, Finnish, and Japanese are among the languages that form words by agglutination. The Turkish term ev-ler-den - from the houses - is an example of a word containing a stem and two word elements; the stem is ev- "house," the element -ler- carries the meaning of plural, and -den indicates "from."
In Wishram, a dialect of Chinook (a North American Indian language), the word ačimluda - "He will give it to you" - is composed of the elements a- "future," -č- "he," -i- "him," -m- "thee," -1- "to," -ud- "give," and -a "future."
Agglutinating languages contrast with inflecting languages, in which one word element may represent several grammatical categories, and also with isolating languages, in which each word consists of only one word element. Most languages are mixtures of all three types.


In English we have many words which agglutinate (extend) to form other words. If we take the simple word - argue - then we can agglutinate it to - argument - by sticking on a -ment suffix. We can further agglutinate this word with other suffixes viz: -ative giving argumentative - and even further to - argumentatively by adding a further -ly suffix. This then is the way of Turkish but even the little words like - in.. from, at. - are suffixed to their noun, thus producing an extended word. Then adding suffix -de - in, on, at and suffix -dan - from.
ev - house
evde - [ev-de] - in the house
evden - [ev-den] - from the house
Most suffixes follow the - Rule of Vowel Harmony - so there can be both an A-UnDotted Vowel Form - A I O U - and an E-Dotted Vowel Form - E İ Ö Ü - for the same suffix. Similarly adding suffix -da - in, on, at.
oda - room
odada - [oda-da]- in the room
odadan - [oda-dan] - from the room
All these suffixes and the rules of use are explained in the pages on this web site.

Consonant Mutation

Changes in pronunciation and spelling of consonants to preserve phonetics and euphony.

About Voicing of Consonants
A Voiced Consonant is one where the voice box is used to produce the sound - d, b - are in this category.
An Unvoiced Consonant is where the voice is silent and only air is expelled to produce the sound such as t, p.

The Main Consonants with Two Forms in Turkish

We do have a little consonant mutation in English, the terminal -y of lady changes to an -ie- in the plural - ladies, and the terminal -f of knife changes to a -v- in the plural - knives. This is similar to what happens in Turkish, but it is on a larger scale.

The changes: k ↔ ğ and d ↔ t

The main changes that occur in Turkish words is that a terminal -k may change to a - (soft g) - when a suffix with a vowel is added. Also the first letter -d of a suffix may change to a -t when the suffix is added to a word ending in a Voiced Consonant. There are some changes to some other consonants which are minor - these Rules of Consonant Mutation are all discussed in detail in the web pages.

Turkish Vowels

This is the way that Turkish Grammar itself describes vowel production by the voice.
In Turkish voice sounds are separated into two main groups, consonants and vowels. When there is no obstacle to a voice then the sound is called a vowel. There are eight vowels in Turkish: a, e, ı, i, o, ö, u, ü.

Vowel Harmony

The Eight Vowels of Turkish
One very interesting feature of Turkish is that the eight vowels can be divided into two groups, the UnDotted and the Dotted vowels.
The 4 UnDotted Vowels - a ı o u
The 4 Dotted Vowels - e i ö ü
Dotted vowels are pronounced at the front of the mouth (as the French Language) while their UnDotted counterparts are pronounced at the back of the mouth (more like English).

Vowels are classified thus

(A) According to the position of tongue and exit.

  1. Thick vowels: a, ı, o, u.
  2. Thin vowels: e, i, ö, ü

(B) According to the lips positioning.

  1. Straight vowels: a, e, ı, i.
  2. Rounded vowels: o, ö, u, ü

(C) According to the mouth opening.

  1. Wide Vowels: a, e, o, ö.
  2. Narrow vowels: ı, i, u, ü.

Turkish Vowel Qualities

Thickaı - (UnDotted)ou
Thinei - (Dotted)öü

Vowel Harmony Basics

The E-Dotted Group of four vowels are e, i, ö, ü
The A-UnDotted Group of four vowels are a, ı, o, u.
The harmony lies in the fact that all Turkish words of Altaic Turkic Origin are pronounced either entirely containing A-UnDotted Vowels, like kapılar - doors or bulmacaları - their crosswords, or entirely containing E-Dotted Vowels, like evlerinden - from their house - or köylüler - the villagers. Grammatical and verb suffixes also follow vowel harmony, being divided into two groups for front-vowel words and back-vowel words.

For example, the UnDotted - back-vowel - plural suffix -lar would be added to kapı to form the word for - doors - ie. kapılar
whereas the Dotted - front-vowel - plural suffix -ler would be added to köylü to produce - villagers - ie köylüler.

Turkish has many imported foreign words from French, such as televizyon - télévision and müzisyen - musician, kuaför - coiffure that have been modified phonetically to the Turkish Alphabet and incorporated into the language. These are spelled according to Turkish phonetics and often have both front and back vowels within one word. Such is true for the numerous Turkish words of Arabic origin, such as mektup - letter and merhaba - hello, and of Persian origin as hane - office - where vowel harmony does not occur in the word itself. In these cases, consistent with the general rule for vowel harmony in Turkish, the final vowel of the word determines the vowel harmony for suffixation.

In short

UnDotted Vowels follow each other.
Dotted Vowels follow each other.

Turkish Verbs

There are no irregular verbs, and one single conjugation is used for all verbs. Turkish Verbs are also vowel harmonized. All verbs belong to one of two groups determined by their infinitive forms, those ending in -mak [The A-UnDotted Vowel Group] and those ending in -mek [The E-Dotted Vowel Group].
The suffixes for all -mak verbs have only A-UnDotted Back Vowels - bakmak - to look - becomes - bakacak - he will look. However only E-Dotted Front Vowels will be found in the suffixes of -mek verbs - gelmek - to come - becomes - gelecek - He will come. This means there is more than one form for the tense sign suffix and in this case the future suffix may be -acak or -ecek to follow Vowel Harmony Rules.

Turkish Gender and Articles

There is no subject definite article such as the and there is no gender distinction, so no le and la problems like French, Italian etc. This borne out by the fact that Turkish only has one word for - he, she and it, namely - o.
There are ways to make a word definitive but it is in the form of a suffix and is used for objects, so there is an objective the in Turkish. This is one of the difficulties for those learning Turkish as we do not distinguish between subject and object in English as we use the definite article for both.

An illustration of the Objective Definite Article (accusative case)

Fincan masada - The cup is on the table - [subject the cup]
Masadaki fincanı bana verin - Give me the cup which is on the table - [object the cup] -
Here we see that the object - the cup - fincan - has been made definitive (specific) by the addition of the objective suffix to produce - fincanı - the way of saying - the cup - as an object.

Turkish Adjectives

Turkish is a Descriptive Language - Adjectives abound.

If Turkish can make something into an adjective - then it will do so...
Turkish is a very adjectival language. At a low level the adjective always preceded its noun, kara kedi - a black cat - as in English. However Turkish makes great use of Adjectival Phrases and Clauses.
In English we may say:
The black cat with the long tail which is sitting on the mat looks hungry.
Or using a Reduced Relative Clause we usually say in English - The black cat with the long tail sitting on the mat looks hungry.
However the Turkish way will describe the cat not only as black but also where and upon what it is sitting together with any other attributes, such as its long tail - viz:
On the mat which is sitting long tailed black cat hungry looks. - Minderin üstünde oturan uzun kuyruklu kara kedi aç görünüyor.
It pays to remember when learning Turkish that you describe adjectivally the subject and object with regards to place and disposition etc., make the sentence and then - BINGO! - once all the describing is done, then put the verb last in the sentence.

Structure of Turkish Words

The structure of Turkish words is vowel followed by a consonant by a vowel or vice versa. Let us say a vowel will always follow a consonant and a consonant will always follow a vowel. There are no diphthongs (two vowels occurring together) in Turkish words.(There are some imported foreign exceptions).
In order to preserve this rule certain consonants are inserted as "buffers" between vowels. These buffers are always Y, N or S.. Note that Y is considered as a consonant in Turkish.
The majority of Turkish Vowels are always pronounced quite short, there is no lengthening of vowels - this makes understanding sometimes difficult as perforce there is little and light stress in Turkish pronunciation.

Turkish Word Order

Word order is regular, but differs from English
  1. Adjectival Descriptions of Subject.
  2. The Subject.
  3. Time Clauses.
  4. Adjectival Descriptions of Object.
  5. The Object
  6. The Verb.

The verb is always last in a sentence. Turkish punctuation, normally puts a comma after the subject as with this sentence. It is good practice to do this especially if the subject is extended by a long Adjectival Description.

An English example
The man with the fishing rods in his hands, - a long described subject - will be at - the verb - your friend's 50th birthday party - a long described object - tomorrow night - time phrase

Lets put that into Turkish Structure:
Ellerinde oltası olan adam, yarın gece arkadaşının 50'ci doğum günü partisinde bulunacak.
Hands-his-in-which-are fishing-rods-the-with man, - a described and suffixed subject - tomorrow night - time phrase- friend-your-of 50th birthday party-his-at - a described and suffixed object - will be - BINGO! - at last, the verb.

Good Luck!

I wish you Good Luck in your studies - İyi Şanslar Dilerim - but it's not that bad!

About the Turkish Alphabet

The Turkish Alphabet was changed from Ottoman script to a Latin based script soon after the Turkish Republic was declared. Ottoman script was based on the Arabic alphabetic script but this did not adequately cover the phonetics of Turkish. Kemal Atatürk introduced the new Latin alphabet almost overnight.
Turkish does not as a rule allow two vowels to occur together - there are exceptions of course - but mostly in foreign imported words. Therefore as there are no diphthongs then whenever two vowels occur together, they are each pronounced as a separate sound.
The letter -Y- is considered as a consonant in Turkish, and it is widely used as a buffer consonant to keep vowels apart during word building.

The Turkish Alphabet

The Turkish Alphabet consists of twenty-one consonants and eight vowels.
The alphabet is phonetic as each letter retains its individual pronunciation at all times. There are no diphthongs - except in a few foreign loan words, and no letters "W", "X" or "Q"


Letter Pairs

There are six pairs of two similar but different letters - each letter in these pairs are pronounced differently from each other.

C - Ç   G - Ğ   I - İ   O - Ö   S - Ş   U - Ü

Pronunciation Differences

The Eight Vowels are divided into two groups for Vowel Harmony purposes. All pronunciation examples shown are given in British English.

The UnDotted-A Vowel Group
A - is as u in English lucky or mutter.
I - UnDotted I - is the er sound in porter or water - without any r sound.
O - is as the o sound in lottery or bottom.
U - is as the oo sound in loot or boot

The Dotted-E Vowel Group
E - is as e in letter or set or met
İ - Dotted İ - is as ee in meet or ea in seat.
Ö - is as ir in bird or shirt - without any r sound.
Ü - is as ew sound few or stew

Consonant Differences

The Pronunciation of these Consonants differs from English Pronunciation:
C - is always a j sound as in jam jar.
Ç - is the ch sound as in church
G - is always hard as in gate. - It is never soft as in general.
Ğ (soft G) - lengthens the preceding vowel. It has no sound and never begins a word.
- The Turkish soft - ğ - can be likened to the silent gh sound in the English words such as - weight, light, fought - etc.
H - is always aspirated as in Henry. It is never silent as in Heir.
R - is always strongly rolled even on the end of words.
S - is always hissed as in safe. - It is never a z sound as in these or those.
Ş - is the sh sound as in sharp or bash.

Alphabetical sound names

Sound Names used in Wireless and Telegraphy
A - AdanaG - GiresunL - LüleburgasS - Sinop
B - BoluĞ - Yumuşak geM - MuşŞ - Şırnak
C - CeyhanH - HatayN - NiğdeT - Tokat
Ç - Çanakkaleİ - İzmirO - OrduU - Uşak
D - DenizliI - IspartaÖ - ÖdemişÜ - Ünye
E - EdirneJ - JandarmaP - PolatlıV - Van
F - FatsaK - KarsR - RizeY- Yozgat
   Z - Zonguldak

Turkish Characters

Computers, Keyboards and the Internet

Turkish Q(werty)-Keyboard Layout Installation
To install multi language support for Windows. Open the Add/Remove Programs dialog box. At the Windows Setup tab, click Multi Language Support, and then click Details. Make sure a check mark appears beside the language or languages you want to use. Click OK, and then click OK again. The changes take effect after your computer restarts. You can use Windows to create documents in many different languages. However, to create documents in a Central European, Cyrillic, Baltic, Greek, or Turkish-based language, your must install multi language support.

Keyboard Layout

To change the keyboard layout for an installed keyboard language go to control panel and open the Keyboard Properties dialog box, click the Language tab,click the Add button to select the Turkish-Q keyboard layout you want to use, and then click OK. After closing the control panel and returning to Widows you will be able to select English or Turkish-Q keyboard usage from the taskbar. Once you have done this, when you switch to your Turkish keyboard layout the keys are set up basically the same but now the following exceptions apply

Keybord Layout jpg

Here is the resulting Q-Turkish Keyboard layout, you can stick small labels on these keys if you wish, to remind yourself of the positions of the Turkish letters. The Turkish and English UnDotted Capital Letter I is to be found at the normal letter I position on the English QWERTY keyboard layout. Turkish Lower case UnDotted ı is the "i-key"

Install Turkish in Windows

These notes are taken from Wikipedia Website, and are for XP version of Windows

Turkish-Q is a more QWERTY-based layout, and therefore it is recommended that you use the QWERTY keyboard rather than Turkish-F, as it is more "foreigner friendly" and less keys are re-mapped.
You do not have to buy a new keyboard to be able to use these layouts. Below you can find instructions on how to implement these layouts on a PC.

(1) Click on Start
(2) When the Start menu opens up, click on Control Panel
(3)*If you are on Category View, click on Date, Time, Language and Regional Options, then Regional and Language Options.
* If you are on Classic View, click on Regional and Language Options.
(4) Click on the Languages tab.
(5) Under Text services and input languages, click on the Details button.
(6) Click on the Add button.
(7) Here you will find a large list of languages. Choose Turkish, then tick the Keyboard Layout/IME tick box. This will enable you to choose from a wide range of different keyboard layouts. Choose either Turkish-F or Turkish-Q (preferably the latter). Then click OK.
(8) The Turkish Language (and your chosen keyboard layout) has just been added to your list of Installed services. To easily switch between English and Turkish, click on the Language bar... button under Preferences.
(9) When that window pops up, tick the following tick boxes:
* Show the Language bar on the desktop.
* Show text labels on the Language bar.
Then click OK.
(10) Now that you've done that, click on the OK or Apply buttons to have your changes saved.

Turkish Qwerty Keyboard

Here another picture Q-Turkish Keyboard layout which shows all key re-mapping, you can stick small labels on these keys if you wish, to remind yourself of the positions of the Turkish letters. The Turkish UnDotted letter I is to be found at the normal letter I position on the English QWERTY keyboard layout.

Install Turkish on a Mac

How to change the keyboard layout to Turkish Qwerty for a Mac.
1. Go to Systems Preferences.
2. Select International.
3. Select Input Menu.
4. Select Character Palette and Keyboard Viewer, whilst still in Input Menu scroll down to Turkish - QWERTY PC and select it, also at the bottom select Show input menu in menu bar.
5. Close Systems Preferences.
6. At the top right hand of your screen will now be showing the flag of the Country your keyboard is normally set to.
(a) Click on the flag and several options will appear including the Turkish flag, when you want to change to using the Turkish keyboard simply select this flag and your keyboard will change.
(b) At the same time select show Keyboard Viewer, this will enable you to see where the different keys are placed.
7. When you want to go back to your original keyboard simply reverse step 6.

Thanks to Pat Pritchett for the information for Mac computers - JG December 2010

Turkish Language Encoding (HTML for Websites)

The Language encodings used for the Turkish Character set on computers, E-Mail programmes and web browsers are usually as follows:

Entity codes for Turkish alphabetical letters used in E-mail and HTML Pages.
â = â Â = Â ç = ç Ç =Ç
ğ = ğ Ğ = Ğ ı = ı İ = İ
ö = ö Ö = Ö ş = ş Ş = Ş
ü = ü Ü =Ü    
The following letters can also be found in older writings:
î = îÎ = Îû = ûÛ = Û

Turkish from the Keyboard

Turkish Characters can also sometime be accessed directly from the keyboard if you computer has them installed. (Many modern computers have provision for this). You must have Turkish Language set up as Multi-Language support (see section above). but it is NOT necessary to have an actual Turkish keyboard installed. My own keyboard is New Zealand type and this method works correctly as long as Multi-Language Support is installed and loaded AND that the programme you are using will accept this input form. MS-Word for Windows will accept this method. Do not forget to switch NUM-LOCK to "ON" (on the Numerical key Pad.)


  1. Select Keyboard Language as Turkish
  2. Turn NUM-LOCK to ON
  3. Hold down ALT key and enter the numerical code as below with the NUMERICAL PAD KEYS
  4. Release the ALT key, and the chosen letter will be printed on the screen
ALT KEY - NUMBER PAD codes for Turkish alphabetical letters for screen and printer.
â = ALT 0226 Â = ALT 0194 ç = ALT 0231 Ç = ALT 0199
ğ = ALT 0240 Ğ = ALT 0208 ı = ALT 0253 İ = ALT 0221
ö = ALT 0246 Ö = ALT 0214 ş = ALT 0254 Ş = ALT 0222
ü = ALT 0252 Ü = ALT 0220    
The following letters can also be found in older writings:
î = ALT 0238Î = ALT 0206û = ALT 0251Û = ALT 0249
Thanks to Kim Sanders of Calgary, Canada for suggestions and corrections to this section - JG - July 2007
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